ECommerce can be broken down into a number of subtypes, including business-to-business and business-to-consumer. Having a large sea frontage with little interior distance, these people were naturally attracted to seafaring occupations. These empires freely traded with each other, and as explorers met other civilizations in Asia and Africa, their trade routes expanded and connected to the trade routes already in place in those countries. It is said that the Phoenicians drew such vast wealth from the mines of Spain that their ships carried silver anchors. Caravans of camels laden with goods and silver crossed the desert and carried into Egypt wool, ivory, gold-dust, spices and slaves from Arabia and the far east. A portion of its needs must be supplied by an interchange of products with other communities or nations and this is the beginning of commerce, either domestic or foreign. The sea coast was low, with no good harbors, thus uninviting to commerce, while a scarcity of wood made ship-building a practical impossibility. [4], In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money facilitated the exchange of goods and services. Commerce has greatly changed over the centuries, and now it's a major part of all countries. If a websh… Crowdsourcing is a type of P-Commerce that is becoming more and more popular. There are a number of different types of commerce now in play. The forests of Lebanon, along the eastern border, supplied them with material for ship-building, and with their oared barks they navigated the coast and islands of the sea, trading in their own productions and those of the far east, spices, frankincense, oil, wine, wheat and slaves. Thus they were a manufacturing as well as a maritime nation. The Egyptians cultivated the arts and sciences, and their kings busied themselves in erecting those wonderful monuments in the form of tombs, which still remain to a considerable extent. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other (the barter system was popular in ancient times where one could get goods and services by offering the other person some other good and service according to their need instead of paying with monetary systems, which developed later). Intellectual activity and diligence in business led these people to many discoveries, among which were the making of glass, the art of dyeing purple and writing by means of letters. ECommerce has even evolved in the last 10 years to become much more mainstream. Then there's P-Commerce, which can either stand for Pinterest Commerce (buying/selling using the Pinterest website) or Participatory Commerce. Thus England cannot grow sufficient corn to feed its people, but it manufacturers more cloth than is necessary to clothe them. [5], Banking systems developed in medieval Europe, facilitating financial transactions across national boundaries. People were once very wary of giving out their private financial information online, but today, thanks to improvements in cyber security, it's possible to shop or make large financial transactions online without worry. The Swiss have long been noted for the manufacture of clocks, watches, and fine lace; the French for the production of wine and silk. It involves online commercial trading between businesses and consumers. Business-to-Consumer (B2C) This is the most common category. Commerce has changed since the time of the large maritime trading companies. In the olden days people engaged in subsistence production. In fact, eCommerce greatly changed commerce, allowing people to show whenever they want and making international orders much easier. E-commerce can be divided into six categories based on the involved parties: 1. The enterprise and activity of the Phoenicians were wonderful. They passed the straits of Gibraltar and went northward among the British isles, where they obtained large quantities of tin. Commerce is a part of all countries and communities. This section is from the "Commerce and HISTORY OF COMMERCE IN NIGERIA. Amazon: Commerce The creation of organizations such as the World Trade Organization was done to help control commerce and to promote free trade and remove any barriers to trade. An example of B2B is Nop-Templates. By the 20th century, trading and shopping expanded from small shops and outdoor markets to supermarkets, discount stores, and shopping malls. These transactions often require products to be transported from place to place or even from country to country. They ventured west as far as Spain, which they found rich in minerals, especially silver. But how did today's concept of commerce come from? Business-to-Business (B2B) This model refers to companies that sell their services to other businesses. They made their way along the coast, and out as far as Cyprus, where they founded a colony, then to the islands of the Aegean Sea and Greece to the north, and to Egypt and Africa in the south. Such were the Italian cities which, in the middle ages, grew opulent from the profits of the carrying trade. Example of this is when some has yam and is in need of rice, he must local somebody who has rice and is equally in need of yam before the exchange could take place. After the conquests of Alexander the Great, the port of Alexandria became the great commercial metropolis of the world, and Greek merchants settled there in large numbers. Sidonian garments, Tyrian purple, Phoenician glass and articles of ivory, gold and other metals were precious and coveted wares in all antiquity. The Egyptians cultivated the arts and sciences, and their kings busied themselves in erecting those wonderful monuments in the form of tombs, which still remain to a considerable extent. Commerce involves politics, economics, technology, culture, society, and the legal system. Here we see the natural conditions exactly reversed from those of Egypt, with the effect of developing a nation of navigators and traders instead of farmers, as in Egypt. When done properly, commerce can help improve the standards of living for a country's citizens and improve its relations with other countries. [7], This article is about the business concept. When we read in Genesis that Joseph was sold by his brethren for twenty pieces of silver to "a company of Ishmaelites come from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt," we get a glimpse of the ancient commerce of that oldest of empires, Egypt, drawing supplies from the thrifty nations to the east of the Mediterranean. They founded the cities of Tyre and Sidon and built up a large and profitable system of commerce. Over the years, commerce has also become interwoven with government, and most nations have some form of organization that ensures businesses don't become monopolies or try to manipulate the market. Home trade, or trading by citizens of the same country, has also become a powerful type of commerce that drives a nation's economy. The broad, level valley of the Nile, enriched annually by the overflow, yielded abundant crops, and the people were apparently content with their harvests, devoting themselves but little to manufacture or commerce. PROBLEMS OF BARTER SYSTEM. Civilized man is never satisfied, for no sooner is a want supplied than another arises in its place, and under that stimulus he achieves mighty conquests over the forces of nature and attains to a high degree of development in character. Let's take a look at what commerce is, its history, and what types of commerce we engage in today. The second type is the more noteworthy. EMBED (for hosted blogs and item tags) Moreover, it may be impossible for a nation to produce all that it needs to consume, owing to physical peculiarities of the country, its lack of coal, wood, or ore, its climate, etc. Any time one person trades something they've found or made for something else, commerce is occurring on a very small level. When it's not regulated, big businesses can gain control of the market, manipulating it for their own benefit and driving smaller businesses into bankruptcy. [1], The English-language word commerce has been derived from the Latin word commercium, from cum ("together") and merx ("merchandise"). Commerce also depends in a measure upon the national skill of a people in the manufacture of commodities. The ancient commerce of the world was carried on chiefly upon the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Commerce is defined by the Business Dictionary as being the exchange of money for goods or services. The Phoenicians imported largely raw materials, which they made up in Tyre and Sidon, and then exported the finished product either by their own ships seaward or by caravans to the east. While trade between countries is still the main force of commerce, it's done differently now - Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. For other uses, see,, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 18:03. Although industrious at home, they did not seem inclined to go abroad or engage in foreign trade, and this was carried on chiefly by Arabs and Greeks. Typically, the B2C e-commerce refers to businesses that sell goods to the public through the Internet through the so-called shopping cart model. It's a new concept where consumers can participate in the funding, design, and selection of products. [2], Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam date the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. No civilized community produces all the things which it consumes. Commerce had its beginning when the first humans started trading goods, but it wasn't until money was introduced that what we think of as commerce really began. But how did today's concept of commerce come from? It encompasses any commerce that is done through mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets. A new type of commerce is Mobile commerce or M-commerce. In exchange Egypt furnished large quantities of wheat, barley, rice, cotton and flax from the fertile valley of the Nile, besides quantities of linen, and cotton cloth, as well as utensils and pottery.

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